What causes Glaucoma?
Clear liquid, called the aqueous humor, flows in and out of the eye. This liquid is not part of the tears on the outer surface of the eye. You can think of the flow of aqueous fluid as a sink with the faucet turned on all the time. If the “drainpipe” gets clogged, water collects in the sink and pressure builds up. If the drainage area of the eye-called the drainage angle-is blocked, the fluid pressure within the inner eye may increase, which can damage the optic nerve.
How is Glaucoma diagnosed?
Regular eye exams by your eye doctor are the best way to detect glaucoma. During a complete and painless examination, your eye doctor may:
- Measure your intraocular pressure
- Inspect the drainage angle of your eye
- Evaluate any optic nerve damage
- Test the visual field of each eye
Some of these tests may not be necessary for every person and
some tests may need to be repeated on a regular basis to determine if glaucoma damage is increasing over time.
If you have diabetes mellitus, your body does not use and store sugar properly. High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels in the retina, the nerve layer at the back of the eye that senses light and helps to send images to the brain. The damage to retinal vessels is referred to as diabetic retinopathy.
If you have diabetes, it is important to know that today, with improved methods of diagnosis and treatment, only a small percentage of people who develop retinopathy have serious vision problems. Early detection is the best protection against loss of vision. You can also significantly lower your risk of vision loss by maintaining strict control of your blood sugar and visiting your eye doctor regularly.
What is Macular Degeneration?
Macular degeneration is damage or breakdown of the macula, the small area at the back of the eye that allows us to see fine details clearly. When the macula doesn’t function correctly, we experience blurriness, distortion, or darkness in the center of our vision. Macular degeneration affects both distance and close vision, and can make some activities like threading a needle, driving or reading difficult or impossible.
What causes Macular Degeneration?
Many older people develop macular degeneration as part of the body’s natural aging process. It can be hereditary and can be caused by certain medications.
How is Macular Degeneration diagnosed?
Many people do not realize that they have a macular problem until blurred vision becomes obvious. Your eye doctor can detect early stages of macular degeneration during a medical eye examination that includes the following:
- Viewing the macula with an ophthalmoscope, photograph or retinal scan
- A simple test in which you look at a grid resembling graph paper
- Sometimes, special photographs are taken to find abnormal blood vessels under the retina
What are the symptoms of Dry Eye?
Are you one of the many patients that suffer from dry eyes? The usual symptoms include: stinging or burning eyes, scratchiness, stringy mucus in or around the eyes, eye irritation from smoke or wind, excess tearing and difficulty wearing contact lenses.
What causes Dry Eye?
Tear production decreases as we age. Although dry eye can occur in both men and women at any age, women are most often affected. This is especially true after menopause. Dry eye can also be associated with arthritis and accompanied by a dry mouth.
How is Dry Eye Diagnosed?
Your eye doctor is usually able to diagnose dry eyes by
examining the eyes. Sometimes tests that measure tear production may be necessary.